No publicly-funded healthcare system in the world can afford to provide all available products and services to its population. Prioritising interventions for funding requires objective assessment of their costs and benefits. Thus, it has become increasingly important to demonstrate cost effectiveness of pharmacy products and services in order to secure funding and facilitate implementation.
Health economic analysis techniques, such as economic evaluation, provide a structured approach to assessing the value of new and existing interventions that can be used to inform resource allocation decisions. Economic evaluation involves comparative analysis of two or more interventions in terms of both their costs and consequences. The results can be used to inform decisions made within the context of reimbursement, clinical practice guidelines and health technology assessment.
The main objective of this workshop is to enable participants to understand the different types of approaches to conducting economic evaluation of pharmacy products and services. Additionally, examples of how to systematically review published economic evaluations and how to use the results of such evaluations in decision making regarding resource allocation will be given. Individual and group work will be used throughout the workshop. Opportunities to ask questions and discuss ongoing research projects will also be given.
Over the past years, a wide range of new pharmacist-led services and health interventions and their contribution to new models of healthcare have been evaluated in different countries. Different types of pharmacist-led medications reviews have been evaluated worldwide, with strong evidence supporting it is one of the most-cost effective health technologies for health care systems.
In this workshop, the different stages involved in the process of developing and evaluating medication review services will be explained, from a pharmacy practice research perspective. Using a stepwise approach, participants will be guided through the needs assessment analysis, development, evaluation, implementation and sustainability phases. A range of research approaches and evidence-based international examples will be discussed through the workshop.
Teaching and learning strategies
In this workshop, a range of teaching and learning approaches will be used, combining lecture and workshop strategies. Lecture components will provide the theoretical foundation for keystone focus areas. During the workshop time, students will apply the theory to case studies through collaboration, discussion and agreement with their peers to address real practice scenarios and issues. Group discussion with the workshop facilitators will also be implemented.
Upon completion of this workshop, participants should be able to:
Identify and describe key research priorities in the field of medication reviews
Apply a stepwise approach for the development, evaluation and implementation of medication reviews
Identify appropriate research methods relevant for each stage
Discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services
There is increasing evidence to suggest that understanding healthcare patients’ preferences can help decision makers to configure services to match their views and needs, to ensure acceptability and wide adoption, and to maximize the value of healthcare provided to the population.
Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are a survey-based method underpinned by economic theory that generates quantitative information on the preferences of the public, patients and healthcare professionals to help identify which characteristics of a pharmacy-service are liked, the trade-offs between these different characteristics, and the relative value of each. This information can provide guidance on the optimal allocation of resources especially in a budget-constrained health system.
The learning objective of the workshop is to provide participants with the basic understanding of these methods and describe how they can be integrated into their research project. It will include a general overview of DCE methods (aim, design, findings and interpretation), with an interactive group work applied to pharmacy services.